Track 20: Prognostic Markers:-
Prognostic indicators in oncology are clinical measurements that assist determine a patient’s risk of a future event, such as a return of cancer after primary therapy. Thus, they help in patient counseling and facilitate customized therapy selection. Therefore, it is crucial for both professionals and their patients to have evidence-based data about prognostic indicators. Prognostic marker studies have been disregarded in the effort to advance medical research, albeit this is becoming increasingly apparent. Large, prospective studies that are led by a protocol are desirable because they include proper statistical analysis and transparent, objective reporting of the procedures followed and the outcomes attained. Sadly, published prognostic studies seldom match these requirements, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses frequently may only highlight the dearth of high-quality evidence.
Prognostic indicators, also known as prognostic variables, are clinical tools used in oncology to assess the likelihood that a certain patient would have a specific outcome, such as a relapse of the illness following main therapy. They play a crucial part in clinical practice, classifying patients into various risk categories, which informs treatment plans and supports patient counseling. In order to assure the comparability of treatment groups, they can also be used to define strata in clinical studies. The stage of an illness or the size of a tumor are examples of basic markers, but more sophisticated ones, such as aberrant protein levels or genetic abnormalities, are also common. For instance, in pediatric oncology, the MYCN proto-amplification oncogene is a recognized predictor of a bad prognosis in neuroblastoma patients (Riley et al, 2004a). The number of positive lymph nodes has a significant impact on the likelihood that a patient with initial breast cancer will survive without recurrence, according to adult oncology research (Galea et al, 1992). Many new prognostic indicators are being studied every year, but a few key ones have been firmly established for (almost) all illnesses for a long period. However, few find employment in clinical practice.
COMPARATIVE PRIMARY STUDIES OF PROGNOSTIC MARKERS:-
A study’s design Prognostic marker studies should be started with every effort to avoid potential biases and mimic the design criteria anticipated of a protocol-driven randomized trial, according to Altman and Lyman (1998). To ensure that their study is well-targeted and designed, researchers should start with a specific and well-defined research topic. Unfortunately, it appears that not many prognostic studies are protocol-driven and lack previous queries or hypotheses since “investigators may opt to undertake opportunistic studies on the basis of specimen availability” (Kyzas et al, 2007b). For instance, it’s common that the sample size chosen or if the study’s markers, subpopulations, and objectives were chosen beforehand is not justified. The primary driver for a fast study of certain pre-existing data may not be scientific significance, but rather another publication. But it is best practice for every research to include a study protocol that outlines the objectives and specifies the approaches that will be taken.
Understanding More About The Biology:-
Understanding more about the biology of a disease process is one of the many potential goals of prognostic marker research. The great majority of research, on the other hand, seeks to determine if one or more markers are related to a particular result (or set of outcomes) of interest. These outcomes in cancer are often death, illness recurrence, or both. Three distinct research phases have been proposed for these investigations, which are conceptually comparable to those recommended for the creation of biomarkers. They proceed towards bigger, ideally prospective, confirmatory investigations after doing exploratory research to find interesting prognostic indicators. Early exploratory analyses are used in phase I investigations to develop hypotheses and find possible indicators for more research. The exploratory inquiry is continued in phase II trials, which also evaluate the connection between a marker and prognosis. Large-scale research called phase III studies are used to confirm earlier theories, sometimes as a result of phase II study findings. These studies must be considered the strongest degree of evidence that may come from single prognostic research and should unquestionably follow procedure.
Track 20: Prognostic markers:-
Subtopics of Prognostic markers:-
- What are prognostic markers in cancer?
- How do you identify prognostic biomarkers?
- What is the difference between a prognostic and predictive biomarker?
- What are breast cancer prognostic markers?
- Biomarker: Predictive or Prognostic
- Personalising cancer medicine with prognostic markers
- New Prognostic Markers for Outcome of Acute Pancreatitis
- Predictive and Prognostic Markers in Cancer
- Offsetting Expression Profiles of Prognostic Markers
- Breast biopsy markers – Intelligent 3D design
Breast Cancer Association:-
- Cancer Survivors Gathering Place
- Cancer Trials Support Unit
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- Children’s Cause for Cancer Advocacy
- Coalition of Cancer Cooperative Groups
Breast Cancer Association Society:-
- European Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology
- European Society for Medical Oncology
- European School of Oncology
- European Research Organization on Genital Infection and Neoplasia
- European Prostate Cancer Coalition
- European Organisation for Treatment of Trophoblastic Disease
- European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Gynaecological Cancer Group
- European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer
- European Oncology Nursing Society
- European Network of Cancer Registries
Breast Cancer Society Universities:-
- Apollo -CBCC Cancer Care – (Comprehensive Blood & Cancer Centre )
- Dhiraj hospital, Constituent of S.B.K.S Medical Institute & Research Centre
- Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute
- HCG Cancer Centre
- HCG Cancer Centre
- Kailash Cancer Hospital & Research Centre
- Kothari Onco -Surgical Hospital
- S. Patel Cancer Centre (managed by Charutar Arogya Mandal, Shree Krishna Hospital)
- N H Narayana Multispeciality Hospital
- Rajkot Cancer Society
Breast Cancer Companies:-
- Foghorn Therapeutics
- Oncos Therapeutics
- MetaMark Genetics
- Lucence Diagnostics
- Pacific Edge
- Arch Cancer Therapeutics Ltd.
- Genetron Health