Track 26: Approaches in Breast Cancer:-

To improve our knowledge of how to prevent, detect, and treat breast cancer, NCI-funded researchers are working. They are also considering ways to reduce inequalities and enhance the quality of life for disease survivors.
This page summarises some of the most recent findings in breast cancer research, including clinical innovations that might soon lead to better treatment, projects supported by the NCI that are accelerating advancement, and research outcomes from recent studies.

Mammography, an efficient screening technique, is only available for a select few malignancies, including breast cancer. Although they are not typically utilised as screening methods, ultrasonography and MRI are also used to find breast cancer.
Ongoing research examines how to improve the present breast cancer screening choices. New options for screening and early detection improvement are being opened up by technological advancements in imaging.
A recent innovation is 3-D mammography, often known as breast tomosynthesis. Through this process, photographs of the breast from various angles are combined to create an image that resembles three dimensions. Although this technology is becoming more prevalent in clinics, it is unknown whether it is more effective than traditional 2-D mammography at detecting cancer when it is still in an early stage.

  • The Tomosynthesis Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (TMIST), a large-scale randomised breast screening trial, is being funded by the NCI to evaluate the number of advanced malignancies found in women who underwent 5-year 3-D mammography screenings vs those who underwent 2-D mammography screenings.
  • Breast cancer screening, like other cancer screening, raises two issues: the potential for overdiagnosing tumours that won’t pose a life-threatening threat (overdiagnosis) and the chance for having false-positive test findings. Researchers are attempting to customise breast cancer screening in order to keep up with the growing individualization of cancer treatment. They are researching screening techniques that are suitable for each woman’s degree of risk and that reduce the chance of overdiagnosis.
  • For instance, the Women Informed to Screen Depending on Measures of Risk (WISDOM) study seeks to ascertain whether risk-based screening, which refers to screening at intervals based on each woman’s risk as determined by her genetic makeup, family history, and other risk factors, is as secure, productive, and widely accepted as standard annual screening mammography.

Breast Cancer Therapy:-

  • Breast cancer treatment mostly consists of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. However, researchers are still looking at cutting-edge medications, therapies, and new ways to combine current therapies.
  • It is now understood that there are numerous subtypes of breast cancer that respond to various treatments in different ways. These are the three primary clinical subtypes of breast cancer:
  • HR positive, or hormone receptor. Breast tumours classified as HR-positive have either the progesterone receptor (PR) or the oestrogen receptor (ER) (PR). These hormones cause these cancers to grow, and hormone therapy can stop this growth.
  • HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) Positive. Breast tumours that are HER2-positive, whether they are HR-positive or HR-negative, have high levels of the HER2 protein. Therapies that target HER2 are effective in treating these cancers.

Breast cancer that has three negatives. ER, PR, or HER2 are absent from these tumours.

  • As we understand more about the behaviour of the many subtypes of breast cancer, we can use this knowledge to direct therapy choices. The TAILORx clinical trial, sponsored by the NCI, is one illustration of this. The results of the trial, which involved patients with ER-positive, lymph node-negative breast cancer, revealed that a test that examines the expression of specific genes can identify which women can forgo chemotherapy in a safe manner.
  • According to the RxPONDER trial, women with more advanced breast cancer can also be assessed using the same gene expression test to identify their treatment options. According to the research, certain postmenopausal women with breast cancer that is HR positive, HER-2 negative, has disseminated to multiple lymph nodes, and has a low chance of recurrence do not benefit from chemotherapy when it is combined with hormone therapy.
  • The molecular diversity of breast cancer has been shown by genomic studies, such as those conducted through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and in the future, further subtypes of breast cancer may be discovered. As a result, medicines that specifically target the genetic changes that cause particular cancer subtypes may be created.

Breast cancer treatment with a positive HR:-
Targeted therapy attacks cancer cells while causing the fewest side effects on healthy cells. Targeted treatments are now being added to hormone therapy in the treatment of advanced or metastatic HR-positive breast cancer. In the ideal scenario, these therapies would increase survival by delaying the need for chemotherapy. The following list of medications is among those that have been approved:

  • The FDA recently approved the use of the following drugs alongside hormone therapy for the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer: palbociclib (Ibrance), ribociclib (Kisqali), and everolimus (Afinitor).
  • Women with advanced or metastatic ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer can take a medication called abemaciclib (Verzenio) either before or after hormone therapy treatment. Additionally, these combinations are being examined to determine whether they can stop an early-stage ER-positive disease from relapsing after treatment. According to the findings of a current study, adding abemaciclib to a patient’s treatment plan may lessen the likelihood that their cancer will return in those who are at a high risk of doing so.
  • For the treatment of HR-positive and HER2-negative breast tumours with a PIK3CA gene mutation, alpelisib (Piqray) is licenced for use in conjunction with hormone therapy.

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Subtopics Approaches in Breast Cancer:-

  • What are some new approaches for breast cancer?
  • What are the different approaches for cancer treatment?
  • What are few approaches for cancer?
  • What are the 5 different types of treatments for breast cancer?
  • Treatment Options for Breast Cancer – American Cancer Society
  • Advanced Approaches to Breast Cancer Classification
  • Breast Cancer: Types of Treatment
  • Breast Cancer: Types of Treatment
  • Advances in Breast Cancer Research – NCI
  • Drug delivery approaches for breast cancer
  • Approach to the patient following treatment for breast cancer
  • Types of breast cancer
  • Management of breast cancer
  • How to cure breast cancer without surgery

Track 26: Approaches in Breast Cancer:-

Breast Cancer Association:- 
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer
  2. International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research
  3. International Oncology Study Group
  4. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer – International Union Against Cancer
  5. World Health Organisation (WHO)
  6. Histiocyte Society
  7. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  8. International Myeloma Foundation
  9. International Neurofibromatosis Association
  10. International Waldenstrom’s Maroglubulinemia Foundation
Breast Cancer Society Universities:-
  2. Aster Medicity, Aster DM Healthcare Pvt. Ltd.
  3. Baby Memorial Hospital Cancer Centre
  4. Believers Church Medical College Hospital
  5. Cochin Cancer Research Centre
  6. Department of Palliative care and Training Center, General Hospital, Kottayam
  7. Government Medical College, Kozhikode
  8. Karuna Cancer Hospital
  9. KIMS Cancer Centre
  10. Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Medical College and Hospital (MOSC Medical College & Hospital)
Breast Cancer Association Society:-
  1. Apollo Proton Cancer Centre
  2. Childhood Cancer Donations – Bhubaneswar
  3. Lung Foundation Australia
  4. National Breast Cancer Foundation
  5. Bowel Cancer Australia
  6. Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia
  7. Cancer Council
  8. Breast Cancer Network Australia
  9. Can Assist
  10. Cancer Voices Australia
Breast Cancer Companies:-
  1. SELLAS Life Sciences Group
  2. Thrive Earlier Detection
  3. RayzeBio
  4. Genprex
  5. ImmunityBio
  6. Immunocore
  7. Loxo Oncology
  8. Ezra AI
  9. OncoTherapy Science, Inc.
  10. Arch Oncology