Track 9: Anatomic Pathology:-
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic, and molecular study of organs and tissues. Surgical pathology has greatly changed over the past century, going from a technique that historically involved the study of entire bodies (autopsies) to one that is now more focused on cancer diagnosis and prognosis to help oncologists make treatment decisions.
One of the two subspecialties of pathology—the other being clinical pathology—is concerned with the identification of illness through the laboratory examination of biological fluids or tissues. Pathologists frequently combine anatomical and clinical pathology, a discipline known as general pathology.  In veterinary pathology, there are similar specialties.
- differences with clinical pathology
- Procedures and abilities
- Surgical pathology
- Oral and maxillofacial pathology
- Molecular pathology
- Forensic pathology
Differences between clinical pathology:-
Anatomic pathology refers to the handling, evaluation, and diagnosis of surgical specimens by a physician skilled in pathological diagnosis. The department that handles test requests more recognisable to the general public, such as blood cell counts, coagulation studies, urinalysis, blood glucose level assessments, and throat cultures, is clinical pathology. Its divisions include chemistry, haematology, microbiology, immunology, urinalysis, and blood bank.
The primary subspecialties of anatomical pathology include surgical pathology (including breast, gynaecological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, soft tissue, head and neck, and dermatopathology), neuropathology, hematopathology, cytopathology, and forensic pathology. One must graduate from medical school and have a licence to practise medicine in order to be licenced to practise pathology. To be eligible for employment or hospital privileges, one must complete a residency programme that has been authorised and be certified by the American Board of Pathology or the American Osteopathic Board of Pathology in the US.
Techniques and abilities:-
The techniques utilized in anatomic pathology include:
- Gross examination is the visual inspection of sick tissues. This is crucial, particularly for big tissue segments where the illness may frequently be seen visually. The pathologist also chooses which regions will undergo histopathological processing at this stage.
- Histopathology is the microscopic study of stained tissue slices carried out using histological methods. Haematoxylin and eosin are the two common stains, however there are many more.
- Antibodies are used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence, concentration, and localisation of certain proteins.
- Specific DNA and RNA molecules can be located on sections using the in situ hybridization method.
- Cytopathology is the study of loose cells that have been dispersed and stained on glass slides.
- Using an electron microscope to examine tissue provides for far better magnification and the ability to see organelles within cells.
- Chromosome imaging in tissue cytogenetics helps to spot genetic flaws like chromosomal translocation.
- Using flow cytometry, flow immunophenotyping analyses the immunophenotype of cells. The various forms of leukemia and lymphoma can be accurately diagnosed.
For the majority of anatomical pathologists, surgical pathology is their most important and time-consuming field of practice. Surgical pathology comprises the gross and microscopic evaluation of surgical specimens, as well as the submission of biopsies by non-surgeons such general internists, medical subspecialists, dermatologists, and interventional radiologists.
Oral and maxillofacial pathology:-
Oral and maxillofacial pathology can be practiced in the United States by dentists with specialist training as opposed to medical professionals.
Anatomical pathology’s subdiscipline of cytopathology deals with the microscopic analysis of entire, individual cells taken from exfoliation or fine-needle aspirates. Cytopathologists are skilled in doing fine-needle aspirates of superficially situated organs, tumors, or cysts and are frequently able to provide a quick diagnosis in the presence of the patient and the consulting physician.
An emerging field within anatomical and clinical pathology called “molecular pathology” is dedicated to the specialized investigation of disease in tissues and cells using nucleic acid-based methods like in-situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and nucleic acid microarrays.
Forensic pathologists have received specialized training in identifying the cause of death and other legally significant information from the bodies of people who passed away suddenly without a known medical condition, from non-natural causes, or as a result of homicide or other criminally suspicious deaths.
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Track 9: Anatomic Pathology:-
Subtopics of Anatomic Pathology:-
Anatomical pathology – Wikipedia
Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Anatomic Pathology – Testing.com
Anatomic Pathology Services
Anatomic pathology journal
Anatomic pathology lab
Anatomic pathology vs clinical pathology
Breast Cancer Society Universities:-
- Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston
- UCSF Medical Centre, San Francisco
- UCLA Medical Centre, Los Angeles
- Stanford Hospital And Clinics, Stanford, California
- MultiCare Regional Cancer Center
- Inova Breast Care Center
- Abramson Cancer Center
- Albert Einstein Cancer Center
- Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center
- Arizona Cancer Center
Breast Cancer Companies:-
- Foundation Medicine
- Affimed Therapeutics
- ITM Isotopen Technologien Munchen
- Circle Pharma
- Owlstone Medical
- Stelvio Therapeutics
Breast Cancer Association:-
- Foundation for Children with Leukaemia
- International Meyeloma Foundation – UK
- Medicines Control Agency
- National Alliance of Childhood Cancer Parents Organisations
- National Council for Hospice and Specialist Palliative Care Services
- National Radiological Protection Board
- Neuroblastoma Society
- NHS Cancer Screening Programs
- Office for National Statistics
- Orchid Cancer Appeal
Breast Cancer Association Society:-
- Swiss Cancer League Krebstelefon
- Macmillan Cancer Support
- Cancer Research UK
- The Prostate Cancer Charity
- International Medical Association Bulgaria (IMAB)
- Moscow Cancer Relief Society
- Turkish Association for Cancer Research and Control
- Hong Kong Cancer Fund
- Cancer Aid & Research Foundation